Road to the Middle Class: Religion, Education, Mutual Aid and Law

Bourgeoisie
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Pagination

And Tammany was the first to appreciate this fact. The way to stop discrimination on the basis of race is to stop discriminating on the basis of race. Roberts, C. Churches [In the] higher Christian churches If God were to blast such a service to bits, the congregation would be, I believe, genuinely shocked. But in the low churches you expect it every minute.

Introduction

The director and a representative of the governing board of a graded charter school that has implemented a school improvement plan under this paragraph shall appear before the sponsor at least once a year to present information regarding the progress of intervention and support strategies implemented by the school pursuant to the school improvement plan and corrective actions, if applicable. Even though many Americans enjoy tax credits and subsidies for participating in Obamacare, the actual unit cost of health insurance is extremely high compared to an HCSM. Building on the groundwork of multicultural education research, CRP has also remained focused on the intersection between school and home-community cultures and how that intersection relates to the delivery of instruction in schools. The family became the means through which property was inherited through the male line. Human beings have a simple explanation for their victories: I did it. The new tax law; the executive actions on the environment and telecommunications, and on financial-services regulation; the judicial appointments of conservative ideologues—all will have the effect of keeping the 90 percent toiling in the foothills of merit for many years to come.

Annie Dillard, Holy the Firm Sacrifice [Every] sacrifice is an act of impurity that pays for a prior act of greater impurity The punishment is commuted in a process that strangely combines and finesses the deep contradiction between justice and mercy. Frederick Turner, Beauty: The Value of Values Pentecostalism Within Pentecostalism the injurious hierarchies of the wider world are abrogated and replaced by a single hierarchy of faith, grace, and the empowerments of the spirit David Martin, On Secularization Conservatism's Holy Grail What distinguishes true Conservatism from the rest, and from the Blair project, is the belief in more personal freedom and more market freedom, along with less state intervention The true Third Way is the Holy Grail of Tory politics today - compassion and community without compulsion.

Minette Marrin, The Daily Telegraph Moral Imperatives of Modern Culture These emerge out of long-standing moral notions of freedom, benevolence, and the affirmation of ordinary life I have been sketching a schematic map Charles Taylor, Sources of the Self roadtothemiddleclass. An American Manifesto.

Thursday November 21, McConnel's of Manchester, for example, the largest employer in the English cotton industry at the time, had an exemplary school, where the facilities were liberal and the curriculum enlightened, and where six adult operatives acted as a 'visiting committee' Lawson and Silver A Select Committee of the House of Commons was appointed in 'to consider the best means of providing useful education for the children of the Poorer Classes in large towns throughout England and Wales'. Its report, published in , argued that an effective educational system should result in an eighth of the population attending school, but found that only one child in 41 at school in Leeds, one in 38 in Birmingham, and one in 35 in Manchester was receiving an education 'likely to be useful'.

It concluded that The kind of education given to the children of the working classes is lamentably deficient Four years later, in , 'there was not a single public day school for poor children in the 32 square miles comprising Oldham and Ashton and housing a population of ,' Simon A report by the Children's Employment Commission, published in the same year, made clear that the position was little better in other industrial towns. The new body was the outcome of pressures for a body to supervise the proper use of parliamentary grants, and was placed under the Privy Council partly in an attempt to keep education out of parliamentary controversy.

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Its status under the council gave it a degree of autonomy and authority which was bitterly resented by the Church of England in particular Lawson and Silver The Committee's first report set out regulations governing the distribution of funds for public education. With the establishment of the Committee, the authority of the state increased, partly because the allocation of grants was dependent on the reports of inspectors and partly because the Committee appointed inquiries and commissions.

The receipt by most though by no means all voluntary schools of government financial aid brought with it, from , the obligation to submit to government inspection and thus official influence.

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A public elementary school system was thus created, providing for England and Wales what Scotland had possessed, in theory at least, for more than a century, but also introducing a long period of tension between the Established Church and the state Stephens The Church of England forced two important concessions: that the Committee drop its plan to supervise the opening of a teacher training establishment and agree that inspectors of the Church's National Society schools would be appointed only with the approval of the archbishops of Canterbury and York.

In the nonconformist British Society was granted a similar right to approve the appointment of inspectors of its schools Lawson and Silver There were suspicions about the Committee on both sides of the religious divide. The Church of England saw it as undermining its authority, a view which intensified in when the Committee began to set out conditions for the management of National schools. Nonconformists believed that the Committee was supporting the Church of England's aim to educate all the people: the National Society was much the larger of the two societies and its schools received four-fifths of the annual grant, which was distributed in proportion to voluntary contributions Lawson and Silver Despite the hostility of the churches, the Committee began expanding its work.

From it made grants for furniture and apparatus as well as for school buildings; it supported the building of denominational training colleges; and in Kay-Shuttleworth inaugurated the pupil teacher scheme. For more on this, see the section on Teacher training below. It stated that, where parliament had made grants for land, or for the construction, enlargement or repair of school buildings, these were not to be sold, exchanged or mortgaged without the written consent of the Secretary of State for the Home Department.

Following his speech, in March Sir James Graham, Home Secretary in Robert Peel's government, introduced a bill 'for regulating the employment of children and young persons in factories, and for the better education of children in factory districts, in England and Wales'. He told the Commons: I am informed that the turbulent masses who, in the course of last autumn, threatened the safety of property If I had entertained any doubt on the subject His bill provided for the compulsory education of factory and other pauper children.

Funds raised through the poor rate would be used to provide schools to serve manufacturing districts as a whole. The Church of England would control the schools and appoint the teachers, but separate religious instruction would be provided for the children of dissenters. Lord John Russell hoped that the plan would 'reconcile the consciences of all denominations' quoted in Lawson and Silver but Graham's bill fared no better than those of Whitbread, Brougham and Roebuck. It was withdrawn after nonconformists campaigned against it, raising a petition signed by two million people. They believed it better that popular instruction should still be left to voluntary machinery for some time longer, than that new authority and new fields of ecclesiastical control should be opened to the privileged church quoted in Lawson and Silver Edward Baines and voluntaryism Some went even further: Under the leadership of Edward Baines, editor of the Leeds Mercury , the 'voluntaryist' position entered educational politics, as a movement totally opposed to any form of state intervention, and advocating the ending of government grants and regulations Lawson and Silver By the Congregational Board was running schools.

In Baines , 'the backbone of the movement' Lawson and Silver , published an influential booklet on The Social, Educational, and Religious State of the Manufacturing Districts. He argued that Shaftesbury's portrayal of these areas had been 'excessively erroneous and unjust', and that Graham's bill had been 'the greatest outrage on Civil and Religious Liberty attempted in modern times' quoted in Lawson and Silver Three years later he published Letters to the Right Hon. Lord Russell , in which he claimed that the deficiencies of the voluntary system were being exaggerated.

In , agreeing that there were wretched voluntary schools, he argued that we have as much right to have wretched schools as to have wretched newspapers, wretched preachers, wretched books, wretched institutions, wretched political economists, wretched Members of Parliament, and wretched Ministers.

You cannot proscribe all these things without proscribing Liberty quoted in Lawson and Silver Voluntaryist ideas persisted for some time: in a minority on the Newcastle Commission was still arguing that 'the annual grants now made should be gradually withdrawn' quoted in Lawson and Silver But voluntary efforts had been unable to provide sufficient good schools and the voluntaryist movement collapsed, with Baines himself confessing a change of heart in Lawson and Silver argue that Graham's bill and the responses to it were a crucial moment in the history of educational opinion in the nineteenth century, and made a national system of elementary education impossible for over a quarter of a century Lawson and Silver Stephens suggests that in the mid-nineteenth century, complete secularization of the public elementary schools could not have been achieved Nevertheless, far from supporting elementary education as primarily an agent to render the workers devout, amenable and obedient for which bible-based indoctrination would have sufficed , central government became increasingly unwilling to pay for religious instruction and anxious that its considerable financial input into public education should show practical returns Stephens To achieve this, the system of 'payment by results' was introduced by Robert Lowe who, in , became Vice-president of the Committee of Council on Education.

He later became Chancellor of the Exchequer and then Home Secretary. Lowe opposed religious influence in education and under the revised code of of which more in the next chapter , government grants were made dependent on regular school attendance and proficiency in the basic subjects: 'they were not awarded for religious instruction' Stephens Presenting his education bill in , Sir John Pakington, Tory MP for Droitwich, told the Commons that by the voluntary principle alone we cannot educate the people of this country as they ought to be educated; you can no more do it than you can carry on a great war or defray all the annual expenses of Government by a voluntary contribution instead of taxation quoted in Simon His bill, which would have empowered borough councils to provide schools, came to nothing, but his proposal, in February , for the establishment of a commission of enquiry into elementary education, was accepted by the government and the Newcastle Commission of which more in the next chapter began work later that year.

School attendance Recording school attendance did not become compulsory until the s, so statistics from earlier years are notoriously unreliable, but Williams suggests that in , , of the country's 1. By the figure was 1. Although this was a considerable improvement, it should be noted that the average duration of school attendance was just one year.

By the average length of school attendance had risen to two years, and in an estimated 2.

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Proportion of children in school - Figures from Williams Statistical societies - Manchester's was the first in , followed quickly by London, Liverpool, Birmingham - began to investigate the relationship between education and poverty. Various attempts were made to calculate the proportion of eligible children actually receiving education, including Lord Kerry's parliamentary return of ; the Central Society of Education endeavoured to collect reliable figures mainly in London and Manchester; and the barrister Horace Mann was appointed to compile a census of education between and Lawson and Silver The National Association for the Promotion of Social Science, set up in , included a section devoted to education, and the Committee of Council published analyses of the financing and operation of schools Lawson and Silver The central issue in the investigations tended to be the proportion of children who could be, and were, receiving schooling.

The ratio of children attending day schools to the total population was estimated by Brougham in to be , by Kerry in to be and by Mann's Census to be None of the figures are reliable, but the trend is clear Lawson and Silver These overall statistics concealed several problems: they 'failed to demonstrate the magnitude of the educational problem in the most populous areas of the manufacturing north and London in particular' Lawson and Silver ; they 'failed to bring out the disparity between the number of children on the books and the number in attendance, the latter figure being consistently inflated in all returns' Lawson and Silver ; and they 'failed to show the extent of erratic attendance and the real length of school life' Lawson and Silver Literacy Historians are divided on the relationship between economic growth and the spread of elementary education.

Some see a positive connection, stressing that the Industrial Revolution increased the proportion of jobs for which literacy was necessary or useful. Without literate managers, supervisors and technicians in manufacturing and suitably educated human capital for engineering, transport, commerce and financial services, economic growth could not have been sustained. The advantages for employers of a pool of talent on which to draw, combined with workers' ambitions for advancement, it is argued, stimulated the creation of a larger body of literate workers than was actually required at any particular time and oiled the wheels of expansion.

Thus, improvements in general levels of education went hand in hand with industrialization Stephens Those who take this view argue that the decline in literacy rates in the early years of the Industrial Revolution 'was not caused by industrialization as such but by a temporary inability of school facilities to cope with population increase and redistribution' Stephens As the economy grew and the number of school places increased, the decline was reversed and by the s literacy levels were above those of the s.

Their improvement from about 'coincided with the full effects of large-scale factory production' Stephens On the other hand, argues Stephens, 'there is supportive evidence for a more pessimistic scenario' Stephens Some of the leaders of the Industrial Revolution, such as James Brindley, Joseph Locke, James Nasmyth and Joseph Whitworth, were skilled craftsmen but virtually uneducated, and 'there is every reason to suppose that the British Industrial Revolution was achieved with a workforce extensively and increasingly illiterate' Stephens Most jobs in manufacturing, mining and transport did not require literacy, and 'the need for literacy in supervisory and managerial jobs has probably been exaggerated' Stephens Stephens concludes that, 'while the contribution to economic growth of the spread of basic literacy in the general population must have been positive, it was not a central causal factor in the British Industrial Revolution' Stephens However, elementary education probably contributed indirectly to economic development by helping to create a society more willing to accept change and by breaking down the isolation of communities which had been backward and conservative.

It is likely to have facilitated the spread of information on new techniques and processes, the availability of commodities, market outlets and employment opportunities. Geographical and occupational mobility was thus enhanced and the allocation of human resources optimized. Again, the ordered atmosphere of the schoolroom and the habits and attitudes of mind instilled by schoolteachers may have played a significant part in facilitating the transition from the unsupervised work environment of the independent handicraftsman and cottage industry to the disciplined regularity of time-driven cooperative labour on the shop floor and from the seasonal and occupational variety of farm life to the monotony of machine production Stephens Whatever its contribution to economic growth, literacy was certainly a key element in the spread of radical ideas.

Reading matter - particularly that aimed at the poor - became more widely available in the first half of the nineteenth century. In William Cobbett began publishing a cheap edition of his pamphlet, the Weekly Political Register , and in the s cheaper paper and new machinery allowed the production of more and cheaper books. In , in defiance of the stamp duty levied on newspapers, the Chartist Henry Hetherington started to publish his weekly Poor Man's Guardian.

Introduction

Back in the nineteenth century, before we learned to love them, the poor had to struggle their way up from indigence on their own. They built a sturdy road to the​. Road to the Middle Class: Religion, Education, Mutual Aid and Law Kindle Edition. $ Kindle Edition. US Government Spending: History, Facts and Charts of.

He appealed to his readers to 'circulate our papers - circulate the truths which we write, and you shall be free' quoted in Lawson and Silver Hetherington and those who sold his paper were prosecuted and gaoled. Like the school-attendance figures, statistics regarding literacy levels in this period have to be treated with some caution, but by the s probably about two thirds of men and half of women were literate Lawson and Silver These figures had risen little since the beginning of the century and, moreover, there were wide variations across the country.

An HMI report on Norfolk in , for example, suggested that 'very few of the adults of either sex, from 20 to 50, could read or write' quoted in Lawson and Silver A rough measure of literacy levels before the later nineteenth century is provided by the proportion of brides and grooms who were able to sign their names in marriage registers. Stephens notes that in England and Wales in this stood at around 50 per cent 60 per cent of grooms; 40 per cent of brides ; by it had risen to around 58 per cent 67 per cent; 50 per cent , and by it was 76 per cent 80 per cent; 73 per cent Stephens Libraries were provided by some factories, mechanics' institutes, Sunday schools and day schools until the Public Libraries Act of allowed authorities to use a halfpenny rate raised to one penny in to subsidise provision.

Unfortunately, this was 'permissive and limited legislation, passed - as all educational measures were - in the face of keen resistance, and easy to obstruct or delay locally' Lawson and Silver The range of popular journals expanded and the tax on newspapers was reduced, enabling the News of the World to appear in as a Sunday paper costing a penny.

When the tax was later abolished the Daily Telegraph began publishing, also at a penny, in Lawson and Silver Schools for the working classes Since the state was still unwilling to provide mass education, it was left to the working classes to provide their own schools or to rely on others - mostly the churches - to supply some basic education for their children.

A Closer Look at How Religious Restrictions Have Risen Around the World

By 'schools of some kind were within geographical reach of all but comparatively few children' Stephens In England and Wales there was a wide range of elementary schools, some private, some connected with parish churches; while in Scotland most towns had charity and private schools alongside the burgh and parish schools. Most of the Scottish public schools were, in practice, mainly elementary but, unlike the vast majority of elementary schools south of the border, might also provide post-elementary instruction, including mathematics and Latin, and send boys at 15 or younger to the universities Stephens The types of school described below were not mutually exclusive: elementary schools were often monitorial schools, for example.

Charity schools At the end of the eighteenth century, most charity schools trained poor children for a specific status in society and for particular occupations, while the endowed schools sought to provide both basic literacy and a higher education in the classical tradition. However, the demarcation between the education of the poor and the middle classes was not always clear. In Lancashire, for example, the attendance of middle-class children at a charity school such as the one in Lancaster, and of poorer children at a grammar school such as the one in Bury, made the two kinds of school barely distinguishable.

Some schools maintained the uneasy balance, most gravitated in one direction or the other Lawson and Silver Few charity schools were endowed in Scotland, where bequests for educating poor children in existing schools were preferred. Exceptions, however, existed in the so-called hospitals founded for orphans, mainly in towns, and in schools set up in remote parts of the highlands by the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge virtually an arm of the Church of Scotland and supported by the government Stephens Scottish charity schools varied greatly: they all taught religion; most taught reading, writing and sometimes arithmetic; some 'offered a broader education embracing also modern subjects, book-keeping, navigation, music and drawing'; others, especially in towns, 'became middle-class preserves, teaching the classics and preparing some pupils for the universities' Stephens While the charity schools continued to provide education for the poor, often in the form of schools of industry, they were soon to be superseded by the monitorial schools, which could teach more children, more cheaply.

Dame and private-venture schools The dame and private-venture schools provided 'a large quantity of poor-quality education' Lawson and Silver Most of the dame schools were run by women for infants. They taught reading and sometimes a little writing.