Albert requested such action from the Roman Curia. He later said he might not have begun the controversy had he known where it would lead. Johann Tetzel responded to the Theses by calling for Luther to be burnt for heresy and having theologian Konrad Wimpina write theses against Luther's work. Tetzel defended these in a disputation before the University of Frankfurt on the Oder in January Luther became increasingly fearful that the situation was out of hand and that he would be in danger. To placate his opponents, he published a Sermon on Indulgences and Grace , which did not challenge the pope's authority.
Luther's reply to Tetzel's pamphlet, on the other hand, was another publishing success for Luther. Another prominent opponent of the Theses was Johann Eck , Luther's friend and a theologian at the University of Ingolstadt.
This was in reference to the obelisks used to mark heretical passages in texts in the Middle Ages. It was a harsh and unexpected personal attack, charging Luther with heresy and stupidity. Luther responded privately with the Asterisks , titled after the asterisk marks then used to highlight important texts.
Luther's response was angry and he expressed the opinion that Eck did not understand the matter on which he wrote. Luther was summoned by authority of the pope to defend himself against charges of heresy before Thomas Cajetan at Augsburg in October Cajetan did not allow Luther to argue with him over his alleged heresies, but he did identify two points of controversy. The first was against the fifty-eighth thesis, which stated that the pope could not use the treasury of merit to forgive temporal punishment of sin.
Luther's Explanations on thesis seven asserted that one could based on God's promise, but Cajetan argued that the humble Christian should never presume to be certain of their standing before God. This request was denied, so Luther appealed to the pope before leaving Augsburg. The indulgence controversy set off by the Theses was the beginning of the Reformation, a schism in the Roman Catholic Church which initiated profound and lasting social and political change in Europe.
Luther later wrote that at the time he wrote the Theses he remained a " papist ", and he did not seem to think the Theses represented a break with established Roman Catholic doctrine. Further, the Theses contradicted the decree of Pope Clement VI , that indulgences are the treasury of the church.
This disregard for papal authority presaged later conflicts.
During the Reformation Jubilee, the centenary of 31 October was celebrated by a procession to the Wittenberg Church where Luther was believed to have posted the Theses. An engraving was made showing Luther writing the Theses on the door of the church with a gigantic quill. The quill penetrates the head of a lion symbolizing Pope Leo X. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Disputation by Martin Luther on indulgences. Ninety-five Theses. Letter to the Archbishop of Mainz. The first printings of the Theses use an incipit rather than a title which summarizes the content.
The Nuremberg placard edition opens Amore et studio elucidande veritatis: hec subscripta disputabuntur Wittenberge. Presidente R. P Martino Lutther Quare petit: vt qui non possunt verbis presentes nobiscum disceptare: agant id literis absentes. Luther usually called them " meine Propositiones " my propositions.
This is evidence for a Rhau-Grunenberg printing of the Ninety-five Theses , as the Nuremberg printing may be a copy of the Wittenberg printing. Luther intends to free the Sermon from Tetzel's insults. Brecht, Martin . Translated by James L. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress. Cummings, Brian Oxford: Oxford University Press. Dixon, C. Scott The Reformation in Germany. Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell. Froom, Le Roy Edwin Hendrix, Scott H.
Martin Luther: Visionary Reformer. Hequet, Suzanne In Wengert, Timothy J.
The 95 Theses. Die 95 Thesen. Out of love for the truth and from desire to elucidate it, the Reverend Father Martin Luther, Master of Arts and Sacred Theology. The Ninety-five Theses or Disputation on the Power of Indulgences is a list of propositions for an academic disputation written in by Martin Luther.
Junghans, Helmar In McKim, Donald K. Cambridge Companion to Martin Luther.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Leppin, Volker; Wengert, Timothy J. Lutheran Quarterly. Lohse, Bernhard .
The bishops, curates, and theologians, who permit assertions of that kind to be made to the people without let or hindrance, will have to answer for it. All those who believe themselves certain of their own salvation by means of letters of indulgence, will be eternally damned, together with their teachers. The word of God suffers injury if, in the same sermon, an equal or longer time is devoted to indulgences than to that word. It does not seem to be proved either by arguments or by the Holy Writ that they are outside the state of merit and demerit, or increase of love. The indulgences, which the merchants extol as the greatest of favours, are seen to be, in fact, a favourite means for money-getting. By the early months of , the theses had been reprinted in many cities, and Luther's name had become associated with demands for radical change in the church. Any true Christian, whether living or dead, participates in all the blessings of Christ and the church; and this is granted him by God, even without indulgence letters.
Contributors ] in German. Translated by Roy A. Translated by Robert C.
Marius, Richard Cambridge, MA: Belknap. McGrath, Alister E. Noll, Mark A. New York: Oxford University Press. Oberman, Heiko A. Translated by Eileen Walliser-Schwarzbart. Pettegree, Andrew Brand Luther. New York: Penguin. Stephenson, Barry Waibel, Paul R. Wheeling, IL: Harlan Davidson. Wengert, Timothy J. Wicks, Jared Theological Studies. Ninety-five Theses at Wikipedia's sister projects.
Martin Luther. Johanne Chrysostomo edition. Luther Monument , Washington D. Luther Monument , Worms. Lutheran history. Johann Gerhard J. Dannhauer J. Baier Thirty Years' War. David Hollatz Christian Scriver V.
Goeze Salzburg Protestants Landlers. Andreae P. Spener J. Petersen A.
Francke J. Buddeus J. Bengel G. Grundtvig August Tholuck Zillertal Valley expulsion.
Hengstenberg F. Philippi F. Hedberg Carl Paul Caspari C. Krauth L. Kahnis Theodosius Harnack C. Luthardt F. Vilmar F. Stahl A. Old Lutheran schism Background J. Guericke G. Huschke Free churches. God forgives none his sin without at the same time casting him penitent and humbled before the priest His vicar.